Comprendre l’essentiel sur le langage HTML

Le langage HTML, acronyme d’Hypertext Markup Language,, est un langage informatique descriptif utilisé pour créer et formater les pages web.

Il permet de définir la structure et la présentation d’une page en organisant les différents éléments qui la composent, tels que le texte, les images, les liens, les tableaux et bien d’autres encore. Dans cet article, notre Web Agency propose d’explorer plus en détail ce langage incontournable du web.

HTML

Histoire et évolution du langage HTML

Développé à l’origine par Tim Berners-Lee au début des années 1990, le langage HTML a connu de nombreuses évolutions depuis sa création.

Sa version actuelle, HTML5, offre de nouvelles fonctionnalités et une meilleure compatibilité avec les navigateurs web modernes. Toutefois, l’objectif principal reste le même : permettre aux développeurs de créer des sites internet structurés, accessibles et adaptés à toutes les plateformes.

Les principaux éléments du langage HTML

Au cœur du langage HTML se trouvent les balises, qui sont des éléments de code permettant de décrire et organiser les différentes parties d’une page web, grâce à un format de données spécifique. Ces balises sont généralement constituées d’un keyword entouré par des chevrons< >, comme par exemple <p>, qui signifie « paragraphe ». Voici quelques-uns des éléments les plus couramment utilisés :

  • <head> : désigne l’en-tête de la page, qui contient des informations générales et des métadonnées.
  • </strong> : permet de spécifier le titre de la page, qui apparaît dans la barre de titre du navigateur ou dans les résultats de recherche.</li> <li><body> : représente le corps de la page, où se trouvent le contenu principal et les éléments graphiques.</li> <li><h1>, <h2>, …<h6> : indiquent différents niveaux de titres et sous-titres, qui structurent le contenu.</li> <li><a> : définit un lien hypertexte, qui renvoie vers une autre page web ou une ressource externe.</li> </ul> <h2>Le texte au sein d’une page HTMl</h2> <p>Le langage HTML offre plusieurs balises pour formater le texte et faciliter la lecture. Par exemple :</p> <ul> <li><strong><b> </strong>and <strong><i> </strong> : permettent respectivement de mettre un texte en gras et en italique.</li> <li><strong><br> </strong> : insère un saut de ligne.</li> <li><strong><blockquote> </strong> : encadre une citation longue ou un extrait de texte.</li> <li><strong><ul> </strong>and <strong><ol> </strong> : sont utilisées pour insérer des listes à puces ou numérotées.</li> </ul> <p>Cependant, il est important de noter que l’utilisation de balises spécifiques aux styles (comme <b> and <i>) est aujourd’hui déconseillée, au profit de l’utilisation des feuilles de style <a href="https://www.optimize360.fr/en/definition/css/">CSS</a> pour formater le contenu.</p> <h2>Images et multimédia dans les pages HTML</h2> <p>Les développements récents du langage HTML permettent d’intégrer facilement des éléments multimédias (images, vidéos, sons…) au sein des pages web. Voici quelques exemples :</p> <ul> <li><strong><img> :</strong> insère une image en précisant son fichier source, ses dimensions et un texte alternatif pour les lecteurs d’écran.</li> <li><strong><audio></strong> and <strong><video></strong> : ajoutent respectivement des fichiers audio et vidéo, avec des contrôles de lecture et des formats compatibles.</li> <li><strong><source></strong> : spécifie plusieurs fichiers source pour les médias, afin de garantir une compatibilité maximale avec les navigateurs.</li> </ul> <h3>Utiliser les attributs pour personnaliser les balises HTML</h3> <p>Chaque balise HTML peut être personnalisée grâce à des attributs, qui sont des caractéristiques fournissant des informations supplémentaires sur l’élément. Par exemple, on peut ajouter un attribut « href » à la balise <a> pour préciser l’adresse d’un lien, ou un attribut « src » à la balise <img> pour indiquer le fichier image à afficher. Les attributs sont généralement constitués d’un nom et d’une valeur, séparés par un signe égal.</p> <h2>L’interaction entre HTML et les autres langages du web</h2> <p>Si le langage HTML permet de définir la structure d’une page web, il est souvent utilisé en combinaison avec d’autres langages pour dynamiser et enrichir les fonctionnalités proposées :</p> <ul> <li><strong>CSS</strong> (Cascading Style Sheets) : permet de gérer la mise en forme et la présentation des éléments HTML, comme les couleurs, les polices, les marges, etc.</li> <li><strong><a href="https://www.optimize360.fr/en/definition/javascript/">JavaScript</a></strong> : ajoute de l’interactivité et des fonctionnalités dynamiques aux pages web, par exemple en modifiant des éléments HTML après le chargement initial de la page.</li> <li><strong>PHP</strong>, <strong>Python</strong>, <strong>Ruby</strong>, … : peuvent être utilisés côté serveur pour générer des pages HTML personnalisées en fonction des données stockées et des actions utilisateur.</li> </ul> <p>Le langage HTML constitue donc la pierre angulaire des sites internet, en permettant de créer et structurer le contenu à afficher dans les navigateurs.</p> <p>Les développeurs web maîtrisant ce langage essentiel seront capables de concevoir des sites de qualité, adaptés à tous types de supports et offrant une <a href="https://www.optimize360.fr/en/definition/ux/">user experience</a> optimal.</p></div></div></div><footer><div class="seocrawler-footer-wrapper"><div class="seocrawler-footer-container seocrawler-container clearfix"><div class="seocrawler-footer-column seocrawler-item-pdlr seocrawler-column-15"><div id="text-1" class="widget widget_text seocrawler-widget"><h3 class="seocrawler-widget-title"><span class="seocrawler-widget-head-text">Follow us</span><span class="seocrawler-widget-head-divider"></span></h3><span class="clear"></span> <div class="textwidget"><div class="footer-left"> <p> </p> <p class="social-footer"><a 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